Immune-related adverse effects of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy


  • An extensive diagnostic workup that incorporates magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathology tests, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses is required to differentiate between immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and other differential diagnoses in patients undergoing cancer immunotherapy.

Why this matters

  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been very effective for treating melanoma. However, irAEs can be severe and require early diagnosis and treatment.

  • Although neurotoxicity is rare in patients following immune checkpoint inhibitor and BRAF/MEK inhibitor treatments, there is the possibility that a cumulative effect of these treatments may be associated with the pathophysiology of neurological adverse effects.